Forest Products Division
Department of Wood -Based Materials
Forest Products Division FRI is one of the oldest establishments in the Institute. The repository of basic and applied data on ‘Wood Science and Technology in India' is FRI. Sonti Kamesam developed a wood preservative "ASCU" in the 1930s at the Forest Research Institute in Dehradun, India. Dr Kamesam obtained the US patent rights in 1938 and put FRI on words map. The Department covers all aspects of the research and testing of wood-based materials from raw materials to final products. Our research intensively focuses on R & D aspects of Timber Mechanics, Composite Wood, Wood Seasoning, Wood Preservation, Timber Engineering, Wood Working & Finishing estimating the feasibility of wood-based materials for different end uses. Nano-science is in the future program of the Division.
History of Division
1906 : Research in Timber Mechanics started
1921 : Timber Mechanics Discipline/ Branch established
1914 : Research started in Wood Seasoning
1947 : Wood Seasoning Discipline / Branch established
1908 : Research started in Wood Preservation
1950 : Wood Preservation Discipline / Branch established
1924 : Research started in Composite Wood
1950 : Composite Wood Discipline / Branch established
1953 : Timber Engineering Discipline / Branch
1976 : Wood Working and Finishing Discipline
Thrust areas of Research and road map
- Utilization of FT-NIR technique for wood quality assessment.
- Grading of timber, assessment of products performance and setting up of quality control parameters.
- Reconstituted panel products from plantation species and invasive weeds. Research on modified woods and wood adhesives.
- Design, fabrication and operations of timber seasoning kilns; schedules and drying behavior of timber. Dehumidification drying, vacuum drying and radio frequency drying.
- Technologies for use of secondary and plantation grown timbers.
- Evaluation of wood working, carving and finishing qualities, development of new finishes and techniques.
- Field evaluation of natural durability of timber species on land, development of various environmentally safe preservatives and treatment methods. Penetration, treatability of various timber species.
- Focus, in future, of the Division will be on integrating the wood quality parameters in tree improvement process and linking them to genotypes and phenotypic characters.
Technologies developed / under development
- Reconstituted wood / board from invasive weeds and bamboo. Plywood and Block boards, Laminated Wood Products, Bamboo mat boards. Use of thermally conductive filler in particleboards to reduce cost. Laminated veneer lumber from non durable species for value added products. Development of alternative wood adhesives.
- Wood plasticization.
- Eco-friendly wood preservatives .Treatment of green bamboo and green wood pole, ACA treatment of Eucalyptus for Joinery. Value addition of plantation grown indigenous and imported tree species through preservation. Treatment of refractory timber. VAC-FRI treatment for green bamboo. Low cost bamboo houses.
- Product performance evaluation and quality control through strength test data.
- Testing and evaluation of timber quality by ultrasound, microwaves test methods for assessment of health of wooden structures.
- Economic conversion of logs and sawing models.
- Fumed Furniture products, Ammonia fumigation for different shaded of colour in wood.
- Finger jointing of small sections of wood with different adhesives.
- Testing and quality (strength) estimation of timber by conventional and vibration test methods to study defects on logs and converted timbers .Development of model for wood quality assessment by FTNIR
- Alternate species for cooling tower industry. Alternate environ-friendly preservative for cooling tower application.
- Glue laminated finger jointed short beams.
- Optimizing amount of coating material required for moisture water retardance.
Significant achievements in different fields
- Preservation of woods ; CCA-Copper Chrome Arsenate (1933) ; CCB Copper Chrome Arsenate (1944); ACC- Acid copper chrome (1944); CRCNSL- Coppersised Cashew nut shell liquid (1961); BCCA- Borated CCA (1992); ACA- Ammonical Copper Arsenate (1993) ; ACZB- Ammonical Copper Zinc Borate (2000); Copper Lignin Complex A& B (2004) and ZiBOC (2008).
- Wood Seasoning: The FRI solar heated kiln. Solar drying of veneers and minor forest produce . Seasoning of round bamboo. Sawing and seasoning of eucalyptus. SDR procedure for seasoning of poplar.
- Wood composite : Particle board , fiberboard , Adhesives , filler and extender, Laminated veneer lumber (LVL),Bamboo mat board (ply).Structural wood from bamboo and lops and tops of eucalyptus, poplar an lantana.
- Bamboo research: Modified boucherie process for the treatment of green bamboo and green wood pole Sap displacement method/Wick method ; ACA treatment for refractory wood .
2000 : Wood plasticization for making artistic bentwood products.
2001 : An Eco-friendly wood preservation formulation; CRCNSL.
2004 : New Technology VAC-FRI for treatment of green bamboo.
2004 : Lignin Copper Complex A&B.
2008 : New eco-friendly, economical and non-hazardous wood preservative ZiBOC - comparable to CCA.
- Grading and Classification of Timber.
- Plywood manufacture.
- Wood Seasoning.
- Wood and bamboo Preservation.
- Other tailor made courses like cooling tower timber, pallets and packing cases, railway sleepers, bamboo utilization and handicraft etc.
Some of Current and Past Projects
- Inspection of Timber for Cooling Tower. Sponsored by National Thermal power Corporation.
- To evaluate seasoning, preservation, strength properties, composite wood, wood working-finishing properties and engineered wood use of Radiata Pine of New Zealand origin.
- Economic utilization of Parthenium - Development of composite. (DBT Funded).
- Exploration of new eco-friendly wood preservatives from Neem leaves and seeds. (DST Women Scientist Project).
- Utilization of Sisal fiber for development of composites and handmade paper. (DST Women Scientist Project).
- Technology gap study and possible remedial measures for select wooden sports goods, Jallandhur (NIT, Jallandhur - TIFAC funded)
- Development of improved chemical formulation and equipment for efficient treatment of bamboo (Bamboo Mission).
- Wood durability improvements through thermal treatments ( UCOST)
- Durability improvement of wood and bamboo through Neem extractives : ( UCOST)
Consultancies: In recent past
- Cooling towers
- Wooden sports goods Industry
- Traditional solar kiln
- Advisory consultancy
Teaching : Masters in Wood Science and Technology.
: Doctorate in Wood Science and Technology.
- Technical consultancy on different aspects of seasoning of wood and other minor forest produce. Installation of seasoning kilns on turn-key basis.
- Commercial seasoning of timbers for general public.
- Consultancies and testing of panel and panel products, wood adhesives
- Testing of wood preservative and treated wood
- Testing of fire retardant treated wood
- Field trials of treated and untreated wood
- Preservative treatment of wood and Bamboo
- Testing of New preservative formulations
- Testing and evaluation of physical and mechanical properties of wood
- Performance test for doors, plywoods, blockboards, particleboards, flush door, packing cases
- Dissemination of strength data of different species.
- Consultancy services on cooling tower timber/ pallets/timber grading for railway sleepers etc.
Research Facilities Available :
Plywood Plant : The plywood plant comprises of machinery for manufacture of plywood ,and other wood / lignocellulosic based panel products .The important machines in the plant are Glue Spreader , Peeling lathe, Hot presses , Veneer Slicer, Clipper, Dryer, Jointer, Splicer, , Pre-press , dryer ,.contux mill, chipper
Seasoning kilns : Solar , Electrical heated kilns , Vacuum kilns , Ammonia bending equipments . Four side planer cum molder, Vacuum press dryer.
Preservation Treatment plants are available for wood and bamboo treatment. Automated Boucherie equipment for treatment of 24 bamboos is available
Finger-Jointing unit , Chain mortise, planer, sanders , Ammonia fumigating chamber .
FT-NIR, Universal Testing machine , Ultra sonic tester , Microwave equipment , Revolving drum box tester, Humidity chamber for door testing .