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Forest Products Division

....come, let us learn to use wood judiciously

Forest Products Division is carved out of some of the oldest research branches at Forest Research Institute. It is the repository of basic and applied data on Wood Science and Technology in India. Sonti Kamesam developed a wood preservative "ASCU" in the 1930s at one of the laboratories of this Division. Dr. Kamesam obtained the US patent rights in 1938 and thus placed FRI on world map. The Division covers all aspects of research and testing of wood-based materials from raw materials to final products. Our research intensively focuses on Timber Mechanics, Composite Wood, Wood Seasoning, Wood Preservation, Wood Working and Wood Finishing. Overall, the Division contributes to the much needed conservation of forests by promoting judicious use of wood through good processing techniques. At present, the Division has made its initial steps into nano-technology in wood processing.

  • 1906   :  Initiation of research in Timber Mechanics
  • 1908   :  Initiation of research in Wood Preservation
  • 1914   :  Initiation of research in Wood Seasoning
  • 1921   :  Establishment of the Timber Mechanics Discipline/Branch
  • 1924   :  Initiation of research in Composite Wood
  • 1947   :  Establishment of the Wood  Seasoning Discipline/Branch
  • 1950   :  Establishment of the Wood Preservation Discipline/Branch
  • 1950   :  Establishment of the Composite Wood Discipline/Branch
  • 1953   :  Establishment of the Timber Engineering Discipline/Branch
  • 1976   :  Establishment of the  Wood Working and Finishing Discipline/Branch
Thrust areas of  Research
  • Dehumidification drying, vacuum drying , solar drying of wood and bamboo
  • Design, fabrication, installations  and training on operations of timber seasoning kilns
  • Development of environmentally safe preservatives and treatment methods
  • Evaluation of wood working and finishing qualities of  Indian timbers
  • Field evaluation of natural durability of timber species
  • Grading of timber, assessment of product performance parameters
  • Penetration and treatability of preservatives in various timber species
  • Reconstituted panel products from plantation species and invasive weeds
  • Research into finger-jointing for reduction of wastage in processed wood
  • Research on modified woods and wood adhesives
  • Role of nano-technology in Wood utilization.
  • Schedules and drying behaviour of timber
  • Technologies for use of secondary and plantation grown timbers
  • Use of Thermal storage techniques in enhancing the utility of solar timber drying kilns
  • Utilization of ultrasonic technique for assessment of hollowness in standing trees
Focus, in future, of the Division will be on integrating the wood quality parameters in tree improvement process and linking them to genotypes and phenotypic characters.
Technologies developed
  • ACA treatment of Eucalyptus for Joinery
  • Alternative environ-friendly preservatives for cooling tower applications
  • Alternative species for cooling tower industry.
  • Ammonia fumigation yielding different shades for Wood
  • Block boards, Laminated Wood Products, Bamboo mat boards.
  • Development of alternative wood adhesives
  • Eco-friendly wood preservatives
  • Evaluation of timber health by ultrasound method
  • Finger jointing for using up dimensioned mill waste
  • Fire retardant treatments for timber/ bamboo.
  • Glue laminated finger jointed short beams
  • Laminated Veneer Lumber (LVL) from non-durable species as value added product
  • Low cost bamboo huts
  • Nano-fillers for improved strength of ply/ particle boards
  • Optimizing amount of coating material required for moisture/water retardance
  • Plywood from combination of spices (combi- ply).
  • Preservative treatment methods for refractory timber
  • Reconstituted wood/boards from bamboo and weeds like Lantana camara, Parthenium
  • Specialised sawing methods for plantation grown timbers
  • Treatment of green bamboo and green wood poles using Boucherie process
  • Use of thermally conductive fillers in particleboards for cost reduction
  • Wood plasticization for  bent-wood furniture
  • Modified solar kiln for drying of timber and NWFPs
  • Convection heating based vacuum kiln for fast drying of timber 

Some recent publications

Hom, S.K., P.K. Poonia, A. Samani and S. Tripathi (2016) Effect of different pressure treatment methods on dimensional stabilization of chemically modified Pinus radiata wood Indian Forester, 142 (7) : 675-679.

Shailendra Kumar and V.S. Kishankumar (2016). Thermal energy storage for a solar wood drying kiln: estimation of energy requirement. Journal of the Indian Academy of Wood Science, 13 (1): 33-37.

Shailendra Kumar and V.S. Kishan Kumar (2016). Melting-solidification characteristics of phase change materials in two macro encapsulations for development of thermal energy storage system for a solar timber drying kiln. Asia Pacific Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, 2 (6): 1-13.

Ismita, N. and S. Gautam (2015). Suitability of combination plywood from Melia composita and Populus deltoides and effect of curing pressure on their glue shear strength. Journal of Tree Sciences, 34 (2):47-51.

Bhatt, S., S. Tripathi and D.P. Khali (2015). Amelioration of phenol formaldehyde adhesive with silicic acid for application in plywood. Indian Forester, 141 (4), 2015: 397-402.

Khali, D.P. and Anil Negi (2007). Block board from plantation species. Journal of Timber Development Association of India 53, (1 & 2): 36-45.

Kishan Kumar V.S., C.M. Sharma, S. Gupta (2015). Compression and flexural properties of finger jointed Mango wood sections. Maderas-Cienc Tecnol. 17 (1), 151-160.

Gupta, S., C.M. Sharma and V.S. Kishan Kumar (2015). Flexural properties of short laminated beams made from two hardwood species. Silva Lusitana, 23 (1/2), 79-90.

Saloni, P., D. Kumar and N. K. Upreti (2015). Plasticization of Mango and Poplar wood using vapour phase ammonia treatment. The Indian Forester, 141(11): 1137-1142.

Sinha S.K. and D. P. Khali (2015). Synthesis and Comparison of Phenol-Urea-Formaldehyde (PUF) Thermosetting Resin with Commercial Synthetic Resins. Asian Journal of Research in Chemistry, 8 (7), 449-452.

Tripathi, S. and P.K. Poonia (2015). Treatability of Melia composita using vacuum pressure impregnation. Maderas-Cienc Tecnol. 17 (3): 373-384

Tripathi, S. and Y. U. Bhoru (2014). Changes in dimensional stability of Pinus roxburghii sarg. and Mangifera indica L.woods after retification. International Wood Products Journal, 5(4), 179-185.

Tripathi, S., Pant, H. and A.K. Kashyap (2014). Decay resistance against basidiomycetes fungi of heat treated Pinus roxbhughii and Mangifera indica wood. Journal of Tropical Forest Science, 26 (2): 203-207.

Kishan Kumar, V. S., C. M. Sharma and S. Gupta (2013). Role of finger tip area on flexural strength properties of finger-jointed sections. International Wood Products Journal, 4 (2), 101-106.

Upreti, N.K., M.C. Kukreti, R.P. Kandpal, Chetan Swaroop (2013). Convection heating based vacuum kiln for timber drying and its performance. The Indian Forester, 139 (1):  43-48.

Andrabi, S.A.W.  and Ismita Nautiyal (2012-13). Effect of Nanoclay as reinforcement filler on Tensile strength perpendicular to surface and MOR of Bamboo Particle Board. J. Tim. Dev. Asso. of India 58-59 (1-4): ,45-48.

Khali, D.P., Anil Negi  and J.P. Singh (2012-13). Effect of Ammonia Fumigation on Glue Line Strength Of Plywood From Plantation Species. Journal of Timber Development Association of India, 58-59 (1-4):14-20.

Shailendra Kumar, S. Absar and N. K.Upreti (2012-13). Longitudinal permeability of Melia composita wood: Effect of specimen length and moisture content.  J. Tim. Dev. Asso. of India, 58-59(1-4): 22-30.

Ahmad, T., S. Gupta and V.S. Kishan Kumar (2012). Studies on the Moisture Uptake behaviour of Root Wood. Indian Forester, 138 (12), 1146-1150

Tripathi, S. (2012). Treatability evaluation of Meranti (imported timber) with ZiBOC and CCA preservatives for efficient and utilization. International Wood Products Journal, 3 (2): 70-76.

Kothiyal, V. and A. Raturi (2011). Estimating mechanical properties and specific gravity for five-year-old Eucalyptus tereticornis having broad moisture content range by NIR spectroscopy. Holzforschung, 65 (5), 757-762.

Pant, H. and S. Tripathi (2011). Effect of neem seed oil as fumigant on wood destroying insect. International Wood Products Journal, 2 (2): 95-100. 

Pant, H. and S. Tripathi (2011). Fumigation of wood with Aluminium Phosphide for protection against fungi. J. Tropical Forest Science, 23 (4): 363-370.

Tripathi, S. (2010). Resistance of chemically treated Bambusa arundinacea against fungi, termite and fire. Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products, Vol. 30(4): 12-17.

Tripathi, S., A.Samani and R.Lal (2009). Fire proofing of Bambusa arundinacea with different fire retardant compositions. J of non timber forest products 16(2): 167-171.

Upreti, N.K., M.C. Kukreti and R.C. Kandpal (2009).  A cost effective solar kiln for wood seasoning. J. Tim. Dev. Asso. of India, 55 (1-4): 72-80.

Tripathi, S., A.Samani and R. Lal (2008). Fire retardant treatment of Dendrocalamus strictus with different compositions. J. Timb. Dev. Assoc. (India) 54:1-9.

Sharma, S.K., Y.M. Dubey, R. Sudhreendra, R.V. Rao, P. Kumar and S.S. Joshi (2006). Assessment of wood quality of Simarouba glauca for its timber value. Jour. Ind. Acad. Wood Sci., 3 (2): 49-54.

Patents (Numbers)

189520    : A pencil and an improved process for the manufacture thereof

231022    : An apparatus for causing a  plasticization of wood

242046   : An apparatus and a process for wood plasticization and bending

244254   : A process for preparation of copper lignin complex

248251    : An apparatus for treatment of green bamboo

257393    : An eco-friendly, economical and non-hazardous wood preservative

Trainings Offered

  • Classification and Grading of Timber
  • Finger jointing for economic wood utilization
  • Plywood manufacture
  • Wood and bamboo Preservation
  • Wood Seasoning
  • Wood processing for value addition in wood Products
  • Value addition and utilization of Bamboos
In addition, the Division also conducts tailor made courses on cooling tower timber, pallets and packing cases, railway sleepers, bamboo utilization, handicraft and Wood Science and Technology etc.
Some of Current and Past Projects
  • Exploratory Studies of Friction Induced Welding on Indian Wood Species for making Joints
  • Studies on role of nano-fillers in wood composites and finger-jointed solid wood
  • Studies on the Radio Frequency Curing of adhesives in manufacturing of Plywood
  • Modification of difficult to treat timbers by Microwave technique for improving impregnation of preservatives
  • Assessment of decay in trees by non destructive technique
  • Development of improved chemical formulation and equipment for efficient treatment of bamboo (National Bamboo Mission)
  • Durability improvement of wood and bamboo through Neem extractives  (UCOST)
  • Economic utilization of Parthenium - Development of composite. (DBT Funded)
  • Establishing a Common Facility Center at Hoshiarpur for Wood Industries and small scale Wood Workers in Punjab (PSAMB)
  • Establishment of Common Facility Center for Bamboo Processing Training & Research (BTSG-ICFRE)
  • Exploration of new eco-friendly wood preservatives from Neem leaves and seeds. (DST Women Scientist Project)
  • Health status and age assessment of the trees of Rashtrapati Bhavan  (President’s Secretariat)
  • Inspection of Timber for Cooling Tower (National Thermal Power Corporation)
  • Integration of hybrid solar thermal energy storage system in a booster reflector augmented green house type solar timber dryer (DST)
  • Post harvest management for value addition of wood/bamboo for livelihood support of rural population(DST)
  • Setting of Pilot scale facilities for destructured bamboo boards and its trial for technology (TFDC)
  • Technology gap study and possible remedial measures for select wooden sports goods, Jallandhar (NIT, Jallandhar - TIFAC funded)
  • To evaluate seasoning, preservation, strength properties, composite wood, wood working-finishing properties and engineered wood use of Radiata Pine of New Zealand origin.
  • To study the suitability of combi-ply form Melia composita and poplar (UCOST)
  • Utilization of Sisal fiber for development of composites and handmade paper (DST Women Scientist Project).
  • Wood durability improvement through non-conventional heat treatment ( UCOST)
Consultancies: In recent past
  • Pallets
  • Cooling towers
  • Wooden sports goods Industry
  • Installation of  solar kilns
  • Installation of Steam heated kilns
  • Advisory consultancy
  • Masters in Wood Science and Technology
  • Doctorate in Wood Science and Technology
Services provided
  • Technical consultancy on different aspects of  Wood Science and Technology to various firms
  • Know-how on Installation of seasoning kilns
  • Commercial seasoning of timbers for general public.
  • Consultancies and testing of panel and panel products, wood adhesives
  • Testing of wood moisture content for public
  • Testing of wood preservative and treated wood
  • Testing of fire-retardant treated wood
  • Field trials of treated and untreated wood
  • Preservative treatment of wood and Bamboo
  • Testing of New preservative formulations
  • Testing and evaluation of physical and mechanical properties of wood
  • Performance test for plywood’s, blockboards, particleboards, flush door, packing cases
  • Dissemination of strength data of different species.
  • Consultancy services on cooling tower timber/ pallets/timber grading  etc.
Research Facilities:
  • Ammonia bending equipment
  • Ammonia fumigation chamber
  • Automated Boucherie equipment for treatment of 24 bamboos
  • Chain mortiser
  • Wood Chipper
  • Veneer Clipper
  • Wood Condux  mill
  • Convection type Vacuum kiln
  • Electrical heated kiln
  • Film Thickness Gauge for coatings
  • Finger-Jointing unit
  • Four side planer cum moulder
  • Gelation timer
  • Gloss meter
  • Hot presses
  • Jointer
  • Muffle furnace
  • Planers
  • Preservation Treatment plants for wood and bamboo
  • Revolving drum box tester
  • Radio Frequency curing unit
  • Sanders
  • Solar kilns
  • Thermo Gravimetric Analyzer
  • Ultrasonic tester
  • Universal Testing machines
  • Vacuum press dryer
  • Viscometer
Testing and Services
A.    Commercial seasoning of wood


Species Moisture (%) Thickness of timber and Per Cubic meter charges in Rs.
 > 2 cm 2 - 3 cm 3 - 5 cm 5 - 7 cm 7 - 9 cm 9 - 11 cm 11 - 14 cm 14 - 15 cm
A Sal, Asna, Jamun, Silver Oak, Walnut, Kusum, Oak, Eucalyptus > 25 % 1650 1900 2320 2520 2850 3500 4160 4810
< 25 % 1410 1610 1760 2320 2520 2850 3510 4160
B Sissoo, Teak, Haldu, Deodar, Birch, Toon, Kikar, Siris, Champak, Bottle brush, Holock > 25 % 1410 1700 2120 2320 2520 2850 3510 4160
< 25 % 1300 1500 1700 2120 2320 2520 2850 3510
C Mango, Kanju, Kuyhan, Chir, Poplar > 25 % 1210 1410 1700 2120 2320 2520 2850 3510
< 25 % 1150 1250 1410 1700 2120 2320 2520 2850
D Semul, Fir, spruce > 25 % 1090 1210 1410 1700 2120 2320 2520 2850
< 25 % 1040 1150 1250 1410 1700 2120 2320 2520
 B.    Physical and mechanical tests
    Sl. No Name of the Test Rate
    1. Physical test e.g Moisture content specific gravity, weight, water absorption, swelling etc. of wood and wood products. Rs. 2,200/- per specimen/test
    2. Mechanical test e.g Bending compression, Tension, Hardness, Shear, Nail withdrawal resistance, screw withdrawal resistance etc of wood and wood products. Rs. 2750/- per specimen/test
    3. Panel door shutter/ window and ventilator shutter as per IS: 1003 & TADS (excluding identification, checking of chemical treatment, moisture content etc.) Rs. 22,000/- per door shutter
    4. Flush door Shutter as per IS: 2202 and IS: 2191 Rs. 22000/- per door shutter
    5. Door shutter Methods of test as per IS: 4020 (Pt-1 to 16) Rs. 22000/- per door shutter
    6. Single test as per IS: 4020 (Pt- 1 to 16) Rs.3300/- per test
    7. Testing of LVL door shutter as per TADS: 15 (excluding identification/ Moisture content.) Rs. 33000/- per  door shutter
    8. Supplying of data on Physical and Mechanical properties of wood, suitability indices, safe working stress or strength coefficient Rs. 8250/- per  wood species
    9. Supplying single physical or mechanical property data i.e specific gravity, modulus of rupture etc. Rs. 550/- per  property per species
    C.   Preservation tests and preservative treatment
    Sl. No. Name of the Test Rate (Rs.)
    1 Determination of penetration and retention of preservative in the treated wood 11,000/-per sample
    2 Testing of preservative in plywood/fire retardants 13,200/- per sample/test
    3 Toxicity/performance screening test by Agar method 11,000/- wood/fungus
    4 Termite mound test 44,000/- wood
    5 Laboratory test against fungus bottle block bioassays 22,000/- wood/fungus
    6 Accelerated field tests 44,000/-
    7 Stake tests (National) 1,10,000/-
    8 Preservative treatment.  70/- per cft + chemical charges
    D.   Plywood and panel products

    Sl. No.

    Name of the Test Rate
    1 Plywood as per IS:303, IS:710, IS:4990 etc. (Moisture, glue shear strength in three conditions and tensile strength) other than preservative test Rs.6,000/- per sample
    2. Block board as per IS:1659 Rs. 6,000/- per sample
    3. Particle board (plain, veneered and laminated), fibreboard, insulation board, MDF board etc as per relevant standard (excluding thermal conductivity, dielectric constant, sound absorption etc.) Rs.6000/- per sample
    4. Testing of Wood adhesivea)      Performance of UF, PF, Polyvinyl acetate adhesiveb)      Purity of phenol/formalin  a)      Rs.  7000/- per sampleb)      Rs. 3000/- per sample
    Service Tax as applicable will be extra for all the above.
The required fee is to be paid in the form of Demand Draft drawn in favor of Director, Forest Research Institute payable at Dehradun.

Skill Development Programme

Bamboo Mat prepared with a hot press

Plasticised Bentwood furniture

Furniture from Lantana camara

Hollowness testing using ultrasonic technique


Reconstituted wood


Traditional FRI Solar Kiln

New Double inclination Solar Kiln

Demonstrating Boucherie treatment for bamboos

Demonstrating chemical seasoning of round bamboos

Modified design solar kiln 

The Timber Museum at FRI



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Please visit new website of FRI i.e. www.fri.res.in

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